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Category: Hourly Billing

NALFA Releases 2020 Average Hourly Rates in Litigation

February 9, 2021

NALFA recently completed its 2020 Litigation Hourly Rate Survey.  This billing rate survey was conducted via email over the last few months.  Over 2,000 civil litigators from across the U.S. participated in this hourly rate survey.  Survey participants included litigators (plaintiff and defense) from partner to associate levels from large law firms to solo shops.  With exactly 2,465 survey participants answering 8 rate questions, we have 19,720 rate data points to analyze.

We are working on tabulating all the hourly rate data points and analyzing and comparing hourly rate data sets.  The full survey report with findings will be available for purchase soon.  This survey report will be free for survey participants, members, faculty, and fellows.  Below are the 2020 approximate average hourly rates for defense and plaintiffs in regular/routine litigation and complex litigation:


"From these national averages, we see that plaintiffs' rates are, on average, $20 an hour higher than defense rates in both regular and complex litigation.  Both plaintiffs' and defense rates rise $30 and hour, on average, from regular to complex litigation.  Also, the variance between litigation sides and litigation type only spans $50 an hour at most, on average," said Terry Jesse, Executive Director of NALFA in Chicago.

Attorneys Seek $2.5M in Fees in Legal Malpractice Case

February 1, 2021

A recent Law 360 story by Nathan Hale, “Attys Seek $2.5M Fees For Jay Peak-Linked Malpractice Case”, reports that attorneys who helped investors land an $8 million settlement in a malpractice suit against their former counsel in litigation over the failed Jay Peak EB-5 immigrant investor project have asked a Florida federal court to approve distribution of $2.45 million in attorney fees.

In their motion, the law firms Cheffy Passidomo PA, Hanley Law and the Barr Law Group specified how they would divide the attorneys' fund established in the deal between the 25 investors and lawyers Edward J. Carroll and Mark H. Scribner and their firms, seeking to demonstrate the value of their work and convince U.S. District Judge Darrin P. Gayles to approve the payments.

Judge Gayles last month granted a request for preliminary approval of the settlement filed by Michael I. Goldberg, the court-appointed receiver for about two dozen entities related to the Jay Peak ski resort in Vermont.  In his motion, Goldberg noted that the immigrant investors' action had gone into "meaningful" discovery, and early last year the parties to the private malpractice litigation asked him to get involved to help settle it.  The resulting settlement agreement was reached after a few months of negotiations, he said.

In the motion, the three firms elaborated on their work for the investors.  They said they participated in depositions of all 25 plaintiffs as well as Carroll and Scribner.  They also retained three experts who were deposed by the defendants' counsel.  Additionally, they engaged in written discovery, substantial motion practice and two mediations, they said.

"Attorneys' fees for plaintiffs' counsels' hourly fees to date and the rate of the contingency fee arrangements between plaintiffs and plaintiffs' counsel in this case both exceed the total attorneys' fees fund provided for by the settlement agreement," the firms said.

Following Judge Gayles' preliminary approval of the settlement, the three firms submitted a letter to the receiver's counsel saying they had agreed that the Barr Law Group should be paid $1.47 million, and Cheffy Passidomo and Hanley Law should each be paid $490,000.

The group of investors filed their suit, Cason et al. v. Carroll et al., in Vermont federal court in February 2018, and a slightly different group filed an amended complaint in August 2019, according to the settlement approval motion.  The investors brought claims for legal malpractice, breach of fiduciary duty, breach of contract, and breach of good faith and fair dealing, alleging that Carroll and Scribner mislead them and withheld information and were conflicted because they had represented some of the investors and Jay Peak receivership entities at the same time.

"Defendants were aware, or should have been aware, of information suggesting that Jay Peak was being severely mismanaged, including that investor funds were being misappropriated to backfill shortfalls in the projects," the investors claimed, accusing the Jay Peak-linked attorneys of "designing and executing" the very fraud that injured the investors.

Among the damages the investors sought was disgorgement of the attorney fees they paid to Carroll and Scribner's firm, according to the motion.  After the parties failed to resolve the case in mediation in April 2019, they called upon the receiver to help negotiate a settlement.

In the motion for settlement approval, the receiver told Judge Gayles that the agreement "provides outstanding recoveries for the Cason plaintiffs," noting that after payments to the plaintiffs and attorney fees, the receivership entities would still recover $5.2 million to be distributed to other investors and would obtain a "bar order" barring all nongovernmental claims that could be filed between the receiver and Carroll and Scribner's former firms.

Defense Firms and Clients Can Boast About Attorney Fee Wins

January 25, 2021

A recent Law.com story by Christine Simmons, “Both Law Firms and Clients Can Boast About Fee Wins,” reports that, several organizations have reported that, despite the Am Law 200’s worst fears, the legal industry enjoyed growth in 2020.  Citi Private Bank Law Firm Group and Hildebrandt Consulting have projected mid-single digit growth in revenue and mid to high single digit growth in profits. 

Last year, large firms managed to raise rate about 5%, according to James Jones, a senior fellow at the Georgetown Law Center on Ethics and the Legal Profession.  That’s remarkable considering the chaotic and depressing environment of 2020, and even more remarkable that the average annual rate increase for firms since 2008 has been about 3%.

But weren’t general counsel in cost control mode?  After all, according to survey data collected in June 2020 from 223 corporate legal departments, 89% of respondents said controlling outside counsel costs was a high priority.  So what gives?  How could law firms push through high rates at a time of such fee pressure?

Reconciling legal departments’ pressing need to cut costs with law firms’ revenue, profit and rate growth in 2020 requires a closer look at law firm segmentation, sector performance and the trajectory of the year.  But in the legal industry, 2020 is also a story about demand and the benefits of close cooperation on fee agreements, allowing both law firms and legal departments to have some bragging rights.

The Conversation

The lucrative year extended up and down the Am Law 100 and likely into the Second Hundred, but it came at different client relations strategies.  For the elite, rate and fee pressure was so little they could give out double bonuses to associates without billable hour requirements.  Wall Street firms and the Am Law 20 saw the benefit of ‘fight to quality” during an unpredictable year in business.  Meanwhile, some law firms did work with their clients on a mix of fee strategies and arrangements, to the benefit of both.

For instance, at Akerman, ranked No. 88 in the Am Law 100 last year, CEO Scott Meyers said collections remained steady last year, although Akerman worked with its clients to help them meet their own budgets while paying their legal bills.  “We’re close to our clients,” he said.  “We reached out to each one to understand, ‘what’s your financial position?  What’s your cash position?  What can you do, what can’t you do?’”  At the end of the financial year, the firm said it had a 6.5% increase in gross revenue in 2020.

Fee pressure, of course, depends on the industry.  And those with insurance industry clients and municipal clients are among those seeing the most discount pressure.  Mark Thompson, president and CEO of Marshall Dennehey Warner Coleman & Goggin, said while the firm’s hospital clients have returned to their pre-COVID payment rates, the firms’ base of municipal government clients haven’t yet returned to pre-COVID fee arrangements as a result of financial distress. “That is going to remain a problem going forward,” Thompson said in a Dec. 22 article. 

But nearly all sectors saw pressure in the beginning of the pandemic. At General Motors, the automaker reached out to the 19 firms on its panel of “strategic legal partners.” The second quarter presented an enormous, worrisome question mark, and the automaker—like so many businesses of all sizes—was looking to preserve cash.

GM general counsel Craig Glidden said the company didn’t know what would happen in the auto markets, which meant asking firms for help. And those firms stepped up, agreeing to deferred billing and alternative fee arrangements to relieve some of the company’s pressure.

The Significance

Yes, law departments are seeking high cost savings.  The 2021 Report on the State of the Legal Market from Thomson Reuters and Georgetown Law said spending on outside counsel did, in fact, decrease in the second and third quarters of 2020.  The report said 81% of legal departments found that general enforcement of billing guidelines, including reductions of invoice fees and expenses, was the most effective way to keep billing down.  Meanwhile, 53% of respondents requested standard discounts; 49% of respondents reduced timekeeper rate increases; and 45% used volume discounts.

At the same time work, the report shows that the average daily demand for law firm services per lawyer, based on billable hours, increased in the second half of the year, picking up in November to almost match the previous two year average.  So what happened to the portrait of the general counsel scrutinizing every line item and grilling firms about rate increase and discounts?

That picture is becoming increasingly faint.  Instead, the portrait emerging from 2020 is one of cooperation and demand.  Clients rushed to law firms for urgent legal advice during the pandemic, including counseling for workplace laws, PPP loans, restructuring and data security concerns.  Secondly, the circumstances from the pandemic gave rise to conversations about pricing, driving both sides of the law firm-client relationship to seek common ground—both in the form of tried-and-true alternative fee arrangements and those that reflect a more innovative approach.

Law firms have some leverage.  Just because a client wants a discount doesn’t mean a firm has to provide it.  “Clients understand the difficulty of onboarding new external counsel,” says McKinsey & Co. senior partner Alex D’Amico.  “There’s a real cost to bringing on a new firm.”

Polsinelli Sued Over Billing Issues

January 22, 2021

A recent Law 360 story by Craig Clough, “Polsinelli Says Clients’ ‘Slacking Off’ Claims are “Meritless”, reports that Polsinelli PC urged a Pennsylvania federal judge to toss a lawsuit accusing the firm of overcharging and underperforming while representing a pharmacy and its former CEO in an investigation by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, saying claims the firm "slack[ed] off" are not plausibly alleged.  Philidor Rx Services LLC and former CEO Andrew Davenport said in the suit that Polsinelli shifted much of its legal work to another firm and added unnecessary third-party legal fees, but those arguments don't belong in a breach of contract claim, Polsinelli said.

"Plaintiffs do not allege that Polsinelli breached any specific provision of the engagement letters but instead allege that it negligently performed its obligations such that Philidor allegedly paid more than it should have," Polsinelli said.  "That is a negligence claim.  And as explained below, plaintiffs' negligence claim fails for multiple reasons."

Philidor and Davenport alleged in their November lawsuit that Polsinelli transferred much of its legal work to another firm working on their case, WilmerHale, which charged by the hour and added unnecessary third-party fees.  This way, Polsinelli received the same $14 million capped flat fee, and WilmerHale billed more hours than anticipated, the complaint said.

Davenport was convicted in 2018 for his involvement in a $9.7 million kickback scheme after the SEC investigated Philidor's relationship with Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc.  Philidor hired Polsinelli and former partner Jonathan N. Rosen in 2016 when the SEC investigation was first launched.  Gary Tanner, a former Valeant executive who was a co-defendant in the investigation and trial, hired WilmerHale. Tanner and Davenport agreed to have a joint defense with WilmerHale and Polsinelli attorneys, with Philidor agreeing to pay the flat fee for Polsinelli and the hourly fees for WilmerHale.

The investigation eventually led the government to charge Davenport and Tanner with honest services wire fraud and conspiracy to commit money laundering in 2017.  Philidor claims that once Polsinelli realized the case would likely face trial, the capped flat fee agreement was looking "less and less lucrative" to the firm.  Polsinelli began pushing work to WilmerHale and adding third-party legal fees for work the plaintiffs say the firm should have been able to do in-house and should've been included in the $14 million they paid, such as hiring an outside counsel for Davenport's defense, the complaint alleges.

Philidor was charged over $5 million in expert fees instead of the $2 million initially agreed to and more than $13 million in counsel fees instead of the $2 million agreed to, among other millions of dollars in third-party fees, the complaint alleges.  The company is accusing Polsinelli of one count of breach of contract, one count of unjust enrichment and a third count of mismanagement of litigation.  Philidor is asking for damages in the form of the costs of suit and the counsel fees they were charged because the firm's effort "represented a slacking off and willful rendering of imperfect performance."

Polsinelli said all the claims are "meritless," including the negligence claim, which is time-barred and fails even if it wasn't.  Under Pennsylvania law, there is a two-year statute of limitations for tort claims, and because the trial wrapped in May 2018, all of the alleged breaches occurred before then and the claim is untimely, Polsinelli said.  Under Pennsylvania law, the plaintiffs must also allege Polsinelli failed to "exercise ordinary skill and knowledge" to properly plead the negligence claim, but the claim does not make that allegation, Polsinelli said.  The firm also argued, among other things, that the unjust enrichment claim should be tossed because it "is a quasi-contractual doctrine that does not apply in cases where the parties have a written or express contract."

Law Firm Billing Tips For Good Client Relations

December 1, 2020

A recent Law 360 story by Aebra Coe, “Law Firm Billing Tips For Avoiding An Irate Client,” reports that a recent lawsuit filed against K&L Gates LLP by a client unhappy with a legal bill highlights some common pitfalls that law firms face when it comes to billing practices, but there are ways to avoid a similar situation, experts say.  The lawsuit against K&L Gates, which was filed in August by Chicora Life Center LC, accuses the firm of using several tactics to increase its bill for representing the bankrupt medical center in a Chapter 11 proceeding over a lease termination dispute.

Some of the alleged billing practices are not entirely uncommon among law firms, according to two experts who declined to comment directly on the lawsuit but provided their thoughts on client billing more generally.  The alleged practices include "block billing," where a lawyer "blocks" together a number of tasks over a set amount of hours; "hoarding," when an overqualified lawyer with a high billing rate retains work rather than passing it on to someone with a lower billing rate; and "multibilling," which occurs when multiple attorneys are tasked with performing the same work.

"All of those things mentioned have been going on for years and years.  This is not at all new," said James Wilbur, an expert on law firm billing at consulting firm Altman Weil Inc.  Regardless of how the K&L Gates suit shakes out in court, other law firms are likely looking for ways to avoid being in a similar position.  While such situations are not entirely preventable because clients can sometimes file bad-faith suits, there are steps firms can take to ensure clients are as happy as possible with a bill at the conclusion of a matter, Wilbur said.

He suggested firms rely on three things to accomplish this: technology, training and collaboration.  E-billing software can often catch double billing and block billing, he said, as well as phrases that might irk a client, like "reviewed phone notes," that may not indicate that the time spent added any value to the matter.

And that leads to training, which should be conducted at all levels on a regular basis so that any attorney or paralegal who puts together a bill is aware of best practices and is skilled in conveying the value brought to the client via the time the individual spent working, he said.  Senior attorneys billing for work that could be done by someone more junior is another beast, Wilbur said, and one that law firm management must work to dissuade by encouraging collaboration and the sharing of work.

Clients have many different rules when it comes to fees, but "no surprises" is a big one, said Toby Brown, chief practice management officer at Perkins Coie LLP.  "The bottom-line answer is more transparency.  And more real-time updates about what's going on," Brown said.  "The lawyers are uncomfortable talking about these things, and so they don't talk about them head-on."

He said lawyers and clients can often get wrapped up in the legal issues at hand, with fee issues taking a back seat.  For example, if the volume of discovery in a major case increases substantially, a conversation on cost might not always occur, but it should, he said.  Real-time sharing of information on the cost of a matter is vital, Brown said.  He said his firm has worked to incorporate the help of its project management team to flag when the scope of a matter has changed so that the attorney on the matter is aware a conversation is needed.

The firm has also implemented technology that goes beyond basic e-billing software to allow attorneys to better monitor their budget on a matter, he said.  Ultimately, according to Wilbur, having a strong relationship with a client to begin with will go a long way.

"Even in a firm that's highly ethical and has training around these issues, mistakes are going to happen. Something is going to creep through," he said.  "The first thing is you have to have a good enough relationship with the client so they know they can text or email you, pick up the phone and point out a problem in the bill, and you will deal with it without arguing."

When contacted by Law360 for comment about its case, K&L Gates described Chicora's claims as "a transparent attempt to re-litigate issues that were raised and rejected years ago through final orders in a concluded bankruptcy."  A third-party fee examiner, it said, expressly found that the fees requested by the firm were reasonable and should be recoverable, and then the bankruptcy court adopted that determination.  "We are confident the present claims also will be rejected," the firm said.